Strikes at universities across Scotland could continue for the rest of the year and into 2024, a union has warned.
Lecturers and other staff are beginning strike action at five universities, as the new academic year begins.
The action by the University and College Union (UCU) is part of a long-running dispute over pay and working conditions.
This week's strikes will take place at universities including Aberdeen, Stirling, Dundee and Glasgow.
Further strike days will follow at institutions across the country and a total of 140 will be affected across the UK.
The UCU has also been boycotting marking, a move which left some students leaving university this year without knowing what degree they had achieved.
And the union is planning to send out a fresh ballot to members to renew its six-month mandate for industrial action, which is due to expire at the beginning of October.
UCU's Scotland official, Mary Senior told BBC Radio's Good Morning Scotland programme: "Employers need to know that we are not going away, we have action this week in five universities in Scotland, we've got more universities in Scotland next week and across the UK that will be taking five days of strike action before the month is out.
"They risk real disruption ongoing in this sector to the end of this year and into 2024.