Professor Barak Rosenshine
This paper presents 10 research-based principles of instruction, along with suggestions for classroom practice. Drawing from three sources – research in cognitive science; research on master teachers; and research on cognitive support – Rosenshine identifies 17 principles of effective instruction.
In order to fulfil these principles he suggests that lessons should begin with a short review of previous learning; that teachers should present new material in small steps, allowing pupils chance to practice after each step; and in line with this, teachers should limit the amount of material pupils are given at any one time.
These first steps should build towards allowing pupils space to engage in independent learning, and asking them to explain back what they have learnt to solidify knowledge and its application.
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