What works in classroom instruction
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Robert J. Marzano, Barbara B. Gaddy, Ceri Dean

This report brings together synthesized research findings from an earlier technical document published by McREL, ‘A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction’.

Summarizes findings from more than 100 studies involving over 4,000 comparisons of experimental and control groups, one of the primary goals of the McREL study was to identify which instructional strategies have the highest probability of enhancing achievement for all pupils, in all subject areas and at all grade levels.

It suggests that there are nine categories of strategies that research and experience show have a strong influence on pupil achievement: identifying similarities and differences; summarizing and note taking; reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice; nonlinguistic representations; cooperative learning Setting goals and providing feedback; generating and testing hypotheses; and activating prior knowledge. The report also gives practical advice and illustrations for teachers.

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Robert J. Marzano, Barbara B. Gaddy, Ceri Dean

Published by:
Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

Date of publication:
August 2000

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Highlighting nine research-based strategies that have a strong influence on pupil outcomes, this report may make for useful reading for teachers and policy makers. 


Record ID:
R314 / 418
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