Organising instruction and study to improve student learning: a practice guide
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Dr Harold Pashler

The seven recommendations outlined in this practice guide reflect the expert panel’s views on some of the most important and applicable principles that have emerged from academic research on learning and memory. The panel suggests that the recommendations are meant to shed light on how teachers can facilitate not only initial learning and understanding, but equally importantly, the long-term retention of information and skills taught in schools.

The recommendations include spacing learning over time, making sure to review key topics several weeks and several months after they have initially been taught: interweaving worked examples with problem solving exercises; combining graphics with verbal descriptions to help retention; connecting and integrating abstract and concrete representations of different concepts; using quizzes to promote learning; using pre-planned questions to introduce a new topic; teaching students how to use delayed judgments of learning to identify content that needs further study; and asking deep, explanatory questions.

It also provides a useful guide to the levels of evidence that underpin the different recommendations, ranging from strong-levels of empirical evidence through to low-levels of empirical evidence, which tend to be more anecdotal. 

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Dr Harold Pashler

Published by:
Institute of Education Sciences

Date of publication:
September 2007

Country of origin:

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This guide identifies seven key evidence-informed strategies for improving pupil learning, understanding and retention. It may be of particular interest to teachers hoping to introduce more evidence-based practice into their work. 


Record ID:
R351 / 456
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