Dr Harold Pashler
The seven recommendations outlined in this practice guide reflect the expert panel’s views on some of the most important and applicable principles that have emerged from academic research on learning and memory. The panel suggests that the recommendations are meant to shed light on how teachers can facilitate not only initial learning and understanding, but equally importantly, the long-term retention of information and skills taught in schools.
The recommendations include spacing learning over time, making sure to review key topics several weeks and several months after they have initially been taught: interweaving worked examples with problem solving exercises; combining graphics with verbal descriptions to help retention; connecting and integrating abstract and concrete representations of different concepts; using quizzes to promote learning; using pre-planned questions to introduce a new topic; teaching students how to use delayed judgments of learning to identify content that needs further study; and asking deep, explanatory questions.
It also provides a useful guide to the levels of evidence that underpin the different recommendations, ranging from strong-levels of empirical evidence through to low-levels of empirical evidence, which tend to be more anecdotal.
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