Professor Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl and Peter W. Airasian
Bloom’s original ‘taxonomy of educational objectives’ was first published in 1956. It set out three taxonomies, which could be used to measure pupil outcomes depending on different goals.
Bloom suggested that there were knowledge-based goals, skills-based goals, and affective goals (such as values, attitudes, and interests), with a taxonomy for measuring each. For example, for knowledge-based skills Bloom established a tiered hierarchy (pyramid) starting with the simplest knowledge at the base and moving upwards to higher order, more comples skills – comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation – at the top.
This updated and revised work tries to account for many of the criticisms levelled at the original taxonomy. Its major difference from the original lies in the useful and comprehensive explanations of how the taxonomy intersects and acts on different types and levels of knowledge, such as factual, conceptual, procedural and metacognitive.
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