A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: a revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives
EdCentral community rating

Add to my reading list
Professor Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl and Peter W. Airasian

Bloom’s original ‘taxonomy of educational objectives’ was first published in 1956. It set out three taxonomies, which could be used to measure pupil outcomes depending on different goals.

Bloom suggested that there were knowledge-based goals, skills-based goals, and affective goals (such as values, attitudes, and interests), with a taxonomy for measuring each. For example, for knowledge-based skills Bloom established a tiered hierarchy (pyramid) starting with the simplest knowledge at the base and moving upwards to higher order, more comples skills – comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation – at the top.

This updated and revised work  tries to account for many of the criticisms levelled at the original taxonomy. Its major difference from the original lies in the useful and comprehensive explanations of how the taxonomy intersects and acts on different types and levels of knowledge, such as factual, conceptual, procedural and metacognitive. 

In listing research, EdCentral makes no judgment or recommendation as to its quality, validity or methodology and none should be inferred. Through peer ratings left by education practitioners, EdCentral’s aim is to support the development of a repository of shared knowledge and experience.

*   Please note that your reading list can only be saved permanently if you are logged into your account.

Professor Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl and Peter W. Airasian

Date of publication:
December 2000 (Abridged updated version, 2013)

Country of origin:

CPD opportunities:

Providing an updated version of Bloom’s original taxonomy, which helps teachers teach pupils higher order thinking, this book may be of interest to educators wishing to reflect critically on how pupils can develop complex learning skills. 


Record ID:
R353 / 458
Rating Summary:

0 based on 0 votes

Start a discussion

Back to search results   |   New search   |   View my reading list   |   Print this page

EdCentral Logo